DOI: 10.1111/bju.16294 ISSN: 1464-4096

The impact of kidney stone disease on quality of life in high‐risk stone formers

Anis Assad, Brendan L. Raizenne, Mohammed El Mehdi El Yamani, Almousa Saud, Seth K. Bechis, Roger L. Sur, Stephen Y. Nakada, Necole M. Streeper, Sri Sivalingam, Vernon M. Pais, Ben H. Chew, Vincent G. Bird, Sero Andonian, Kristina L. Penniston, Naeem Bhojani
  • Urology


To assess the impact of kidney stone disease (KSD) and its treatment on the health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) of high‐risk stone formers with hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, malabsorptive disease, and medullary sponge kidney.

Patients and Methods

The Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire was used to evaluate HRQOL in 3301 patients with a history of KSD from 16 institutions in North America between 2014 and 2020. Baseline characteristics and medical history were collected from patients, while active KSD was confirmed through radiological imaging. The high‐risk group was compared to the remaining patients (control group) using the Wilcoxon rank‐sum test.


Of 1499 patients with active KSD included in the study, the high‐risk group included 120 patients. The high‐risk group had significantly lower HRQOL scores compared to the control group (P < 0.01). In the multivariable analyses, medullary sponge kidney disease and renal tubular acidosis were independent predictors of poorer HRQOL, while alkali therapy was an independent predictor of better HRQOL (all P < 0.01).


Among patients with active KSD, high‐risk stone formers had impaired HRQOL with medullary sponge kidney disease and renal tubular acidosis being independent predictors of poorer HRQOL. Clinicians should seek to identify these patients earlier as they would benefit from prompt treatment and prevention.

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