DOI: 10.1002/pros.24673 ISSN: 0270-4137

Estimating disparities of prostate cancer burden and its attributable risk factors for males across the BRICS‐plus, 1990–2019: A comparable study of key nations with emerging economies

Li‐Sha Luo, Jiao Huang, Hang‐Hang Luan, Sumaira Mubarik, Quliang Zhong, Xian‐Tao Zeng
  • Urology
  • Oncology



The study aimed to analyze epidemiology burden of male prostate cancer across the BRICS‐plus, and identify potential risk factors by assessing the associations with age, period, birth cohorts and sociodemographic index (SDI).


Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The average annual percent change (AAPC) was calculated to assess long‐term trends, and age‐period‐cohort analysis was used to analyze these three effects on prostate cancer burden. Quantile regression was used to investigate the association between SDI and health outcomes.


The higher incidence and mortality were observed in Mercosur and SACU regions, increasing trends were observed in prostate cancer incidence in almost all BRICS‐plus countries (AAPC > 0), and EEU's grew by 24.31% (%AAPC range: ‐0.13–3.03). Mortality had increased in more than half of countries (AAPC > 0), and SACU grew by 1.82% (%AAPC range: 0.62–1.75). Incidence and mortality risk sharply increased with age across all BRICS‐plus countries and globally, and the peak was reached in the age group 80–84 years. Rate ratio (RR) of incidence increased with birth cohorts in all BRICS‐plus countries except for Kazakhstan where slightly decrease, while mortality RR decreased with birth cohort in most of BRICS‐plus countries. SDI presented significantly positive associations with incidence in 50 percentiles. The deaths attributable to smoking declined in most of BRICS‐plus nations, and many countries in China‐ASEAN‐FTA and EEU had higher values.


Prostate cancer posed a serious public health challenge with an increasing burden among most of BRICS‐plus countries. Age had significant effects on prostate cancer burden, and recent birth cohorts suffered from higher incidence risk. SDI presented a positive relationship with incidence, and the smoking‐attributable burden was tremendous in China‐ASEAN‐FTA and EEU region. Secondary prevention should be prioritized in BRICS‐plus nations, and health policies targeting important populations should be strengthened based on their characteristics and adaptability.

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