DOI: 10.1029/2023ja031596 ISSN:

Interhemispheric observations of ULF waves caused by foreshock transients under quiet solar wind conditions

Sung Jun Noh, Hyomin Kim, Dogacan Ozturk, Ilya Kuzichev, Zhonghua Xu, Hui Zhang, Andrew Vu, Terry Liu, James M. Weygand, Michael D. Hartinger, Xueling Shi, Mark Engebretson, Andrew Gerrard, Eun‐Hwa Kim, Marc Lessard, Christopher T. Russell
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


Foreshock transient events are frequently observed phenomena that are generated by discontinuities in the solar wind. These transient events are known to trigger global‐scale magnetic field perturbations (e.g., ULF waves). We report a series of foreshock transient events observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission in the upstream bow shock region under quiet solar wind conditions. During the event, ground magnetometers observed significant Pc1 wave activity as well as magnetic impulse events in both hemispheres. Ground Pc 1 wave observations show ∼ 8 minutes time delay (with some time differences) from each foreshock transient event which is observed at the bow shock. We also find that the ground Pc1 waves are observed earlier in the northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The observation time difference between the hemispheres implies that the source region of the wave is the off‐equatorial region.

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