DOI: 10.3390/biology12091200 ISSN:

Integrating Omics Technologies for a Comprehensive Understanding of the Microbiome and Its Impact on Cattle Production

Harpreet Kaur, Gurjeet Kaur, Taruna Gupta, Deepti Mittal, Syed Azmal Ali
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

Ruminant production holds a pivotal position within the global animal production and agricultural sectors. As population growth escalates, posing environmental challenges, a heightened emphasis is directed toward refining ruminant production systems. Recent investigations underscore the connection between the composition and functionality of the rumen microbiome and economically advantageous traits in cattle. Consequently, the development of innovative strategies to enhance cattle feed efficiency, while curbing environmental and financial burdens, becomes imperative. The advent of omics technologies has yielded fresh insights into metabolic health fluctuations in dairy cattle, consequently enhancing nutritional management practices. The pivotal role of the rumen microbiome in augmenting feeding efficiency by transforming low-quality feedstuffs into energy substrates for the host is underscored. This microbial community assumes focal importance within gut microbiome studies, contributing indispensably to plant fiber digestion, as well as influencing production and health variability in ruminants. Instances of compromised animal welfare can substantially modulate the microbiological composition of the rumen, thereby influencing production rates. A comprehensive global approach that targets both cattle and their rumen microbiota is paramount for enhancing feed efficiency and optimizing rumen fermentation processes. This review article underscores the factors that contribute to the establishment or restoration of the rumen microbiome post perturbations and the intricacies of host-microbiome interactions. We accentuate the elements responsible for responsible host-microbiome interactions and practical applications in the domains of animal health and production. Moreover, meticulous scrutiny of the microbiome and its consequential effects on cattle production systems greatly contributes to forging more sustainable and resilient food production systems, thereby mitigating the adverse environmental impact.

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