DOI: 10.1093/jsxmed/qdae001.078 ISSN: 1743-6095

(082) Integrated Urology and Primary Care Model Improves Outcomes for Men with Testosterone Deficiency

V Nguyen, S Berrios, A Leonard, E Byrne, D Patel, L Martin, T Hsieh
  • Urology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Psychiatry and Mental health



Testosterone deficiency affects approximately 4-5 million men in the United States. The bidirectional association between testosterone deficiency and metabolic syndrome has been well-established. The diagnosis of testosterone deficiency should serve as a trigger for medical evaluation of other comorbidities. Furthermore, male sex is an independent predictor of decreased routine health maintenance; men are 40% less likely to have a primary care provider (PCP) compared to women in the United States. Thus, many patients who present to the urologist for symptomatic testosterone deficiency might have undiagnosed or poorly managed comorbidities coupled with a lack of a PCP.


We sought to investigate the impact of offering primary care access within an integrated Men’s Health Center to men presenting for initial evaluation of symptomatic testosterone deficiency.


This is a retrospective single institution study. All new patients presenting with testosterone deficiency between October 2019 and October 2022 were offered evaluation by a PCP within a university-based Men’s Health Center. Patients who were seen by the PCP underwent standard health screening and blood work including a lipid profile, liver function testing, and diabetes screening with hemoglobin (Hgb) A1c. All data were collected from the electronic medical record and deidentified. Institutional review board (IRB) exemption was obtained. Variables collected for analysis included age, race, body mass index (BMI), testosterone level on presentation, prior access to a pre-existing PCP, and number of visits attended with our PCP. Outcomes measured include new diagnoses made by the PCP and referral patterns to other specialties. All statistical analysis was conducted utilizing SPSS version 28.


81 men were evaluated over the 3-year study period. Median age was 49.0 (range: 21.2-93.7 years). 48 men (59%) established continuity of care and were seen by our PCP for more than 1 visit. 33 men (41%) did not have a pre-existing PCP. Older men were significantly more likely to have a pre-existing PCP (OR 1.06 [95% CI: 1.02-1.10], p<0.001). Hispanic men were significantly less likely to have an existing PCP (OR 0.16 [95% CI: 0.03-0.84], p=0.01). Newly diagnosed comorbidities included hypertension (41%), obesity (37%), hyperlipidemia (27%), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; 25%), depression (23%), and diabetes (14%). 41 patients (51%) were prescribed a new medication. 21 patients (26%) were referred to nutrition, with mean BMI decrease of 1.75. 26 patients (32%) underwent sleep medicine evaluation for OSA. 27 (33%) and 37 patients (46%) received a flu vaccination and immunization updates. 11 patients (14%) were referred for screening colonoscopy. Patients who established continuity of care were significantly more likely to be treated for a new diagnosis (p<0.001) and receive a flu vaccination (p=0.007; Table 1).


This is the first report of integrated primary care and urology evaluation for testosterone deficiency. This comprehensive model results in improved outcomes including increased access to subspecialty referrals, objective weight loss, treatment of new diagnoses, updated immunizations, and cancer screening. Further studies are needed to assess reproducibility across other institutions, cost-effectiveness of this model, and patient satisfaction.


Any of the authors act as a consultant, employee or shareholder of an industry for: Boston Scientific, Endo Pharmaceuticals.

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