DOI: 10.2500/aap.2024.45.230075 ISSN: 1088-5412

Understanding of lipid transfer protein sensitization patterns and its clinical significance in children

Alp Kazancioglu, Ilteber Konuralp, Umit Murat Sahiner, Ozge Soyer, Bulent Enis Sekerel
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • General Medicine
  • Immunology and Allergy

Background: Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are the most common food allergens in the Mediterranean region. Objective: The study aimed to investigate co-sensitization patterns and cluster relationships between LTP allergen molecules across a broad range of allergen-specific sensitization patterns, and clinical outcomes in eastern Mediterranean children. Methods: Among 496 children evaluated for multiple sensitizations with multiplex testing, 105 children (21%) with 16 different LTP sensitizations were analyzed. Clinical reactivity was examined based on clear-cut history of immunoglobulin E mediated symptoms (oral allergy syndrome [OAS], systemic reactions, and anaphylaxis). Results: All children included were sensitive to food LTPs, but 56% were sensitive to pollen LTPs. The number of children with OAS and clinical reactivity was 12 and 59, respectively, and no cofactors were reported. The most common sensitizations were Pru p 3 (74%) and Cor a 8 (66%). Significant correlations were observed in the heatmap between the LTP molecules other than Par j 2 and Tri a 14. Overall, clinical reactivity was associated with increased age and number of LTP molecule positivity. Conclusion: In the eastern Mediterranean region, 21% of children with multiple food and/or pollen sensitizations were found to have LTP sensitization; however, almost half reported clinical reactivity. The hierarchical pathway highlights that distinct LTP allergen molecules can act as primary sensitizers. Clinical reactivity is linked to increasing numbers of LTP molecule positivity and increasing age.

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