DOI: 10.3390/life13081689 ISSN: 2075-1729

Tumor Markers and Their Diagnostic Significance in Ovarian Cancer

Alkis Matsas, Dimitrios Stefanoudakis, Theodore Troupis, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Makarios Eleftheriades, Panagiotis Christopoulos, Theodoros Panoskaltsis, Eleni Stamoula, Dimitrios C. Iliopoulos
  • Paleontology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Ovarian cancer (OC) is characterized by silent progression and late-stage diagnosis. It is critical to detect and accurately diagnose the disease early to improve survival rates. Tumor markers have emerged as valuable tools in the diagnosis and management of OC, offering non-invasive and cost-effective options for screening, monitoring, and prognosis. Purpose: This paper explores the diagnostic importance of various tumor markers including CA-125, CA15-3, CA 19-9, HE4,hCG, inhibin, AFP, and LDH, and their impact on disease monitoring and treatment response assessment. Methods: Article searches were performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Keywords used for the searching process were “Ovarian cancer”, “Cancer biomarkers”, “Early detection”, “Cancer diagnosis”, “CA-125”,“CA 15-3”,“CA 19-9”, “HE4”,“hCG”, “inhibin”, “AFP”, “LDH”, and others. Results: HE4, when combined with CA-125, shows improved sensitivity and specificity, particularly in early-stage detection. Additionally, hCG holds promise as a prognostic marker, aiding treatment response prediction and outcome assessment. Novel markers like microRNAs, DNA methylation patterns, and circulating tumor cells offer potential for enhanced diagnostic accuracy and personalized management. Integrating these markers into a comprehensive panel may improve sensitivity and specificity in ovarian cancer diagnosis. However, careful interpretation of tumor marker results is necessary, considering factors such as age, menopausal status, and comorbidities. Further research is needed to validate and refine diagnostic algorithms, optimizing the clinical significance of tumor markers in ovarian cancer management. In conclusion, tumor markers such as CA-125, CA15-3, CA 19-9, HE4, and hCG provide valuable insights into ovarian cancer diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis, with the potential to enhance early detection.

More from our Archive