DOI: 10.1177/00332941231219791 ISSN: 0033-2941

The Smartphone Addiction Measure (SAM): Subscales, Validity, and Reliability

Taylor Bradish, Lawrence Locker, Rebecca G. Ryan, Janie H. Wilson
  • General Psychology

Dependence on smartphones continues to grow, with young adults showing the highest usage. In fact, reliance on smartphones may indicate a behavioral addiction, a concept gaining interest in both research and clinical practice. However, valid and reliable assessments of smartphone addiction are needed. To this end, we developed the Smartphone Addiction Measure (SAM) with an initial sample (113 participants; 32 males, 81 females) and assessed the validity and reliability of this new measure. Principle components analysis with an additional sample (286 participants; 78 males, 207 females, 1 other) revealed four factors generally associated with addiction, including salience, mood modification, withdrawal, and conflict, thus providing support for the SAM as a valid measure of addictive behavior related to smartphone use. Analyses also revealed good validity and reliability (221 participants; 38 males, 179 females, 4 other) that sufficiently support the SAM as a psychometrically sound assessment for smartphone addiction.

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