DOI: 10.1093/bjs/znad241.099 ISSN:

SP9.2 Penthrox Is Effective but Is It Patient Approved?

Ana Dias, Ziad Zeidan, Matt Copp, Francis Eslabra, Rawan Hassan, Rory Middleton
  • Surgery



Penthrox is a handheld inhaler that administers methoxyflurane. Its use is approved for analgesia in moderate-to-severe trauma-related pain in adults in emergency department (ED). The literature currently lacks methodologically robust qualitative data on individual patient experience. Using a structured qualitative study, we set out to address this shortcoming.


Focus group: Five patients were selected to identify key themes they felt important to explore and these were included in the questionnaire design.

Study Design

We retrospectively identified all uses of Penthrox in ED from June to August 2021. Qualitative data was gathered using the Trickett short interview method and responses grouped into positive and negative descriptors. In addition, quantitative data concerning their experience using 5-point Lickert scales were also gathered.


Questionnaires: 101 responded to the questionnaire. Penthrox® was utilised mainly for the manipulation of fractures, most commonly for that of the Ankle and Wrist. 90% reported an overall satisfaction of ‘≥ Good’. 97% reported ease-of-use ‘≥ Good’. Its analgesic effectiveness was rated as ‘Excellent’ by 52%, and ‘≥ Good’ by 89%. The most reported side-effects were drowsiness (13%) and nausea (7%). The majority reported no side-effects (74%). 94% would take it again if required. A NVIVO word cloud was created visually confirming an overall positive experience amongst the patients.


This study shows that Penthrox is a well-tolerated and user-friendly means of alleviating trauma-related pain in ED. It highlights the importance of taking into consideration the individual patient journey alongside robust evidence-based data on safety and efficacy for the development of a holistic treatment.

More from our Archive