DOI: 10.1093/jscr/rjad495 ISSN:

A case report of acute appendicitis complicated by pylephlebitis: medical and surgical management

Krishna Patel, Jaya Sai Varre, Nate Williams, Oscar Ruiz
  • Surgery


Pylephlebitis is a suppurative thrombus of the portal vein and/or its branches secondary to an intra-abdominal infection. Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of emergency operation in general surgery and is typically treated with antibiotics and timely appendectomy with minimal adverse outcomes (Ferris M, Quan S, Kaplan BS, et al. The global incidence of appendicitis: a systematic review of population-based studies. Ann Surg 2017;266:237–41 and Poon S, Lee J, NG KM, Chiu GWY, et al. The current management of acute uncomplicated appendicitis: should there be a change in paradigm? A systematic review of the literatures and analysis of treatment performance. WJES 2017;12:46). Unfortunately, the identification of pyelephlebitis is difficult to make due to its nonspecific clinical presentation and can result in significant morbidity or mortality if not appropriately treated. Certain laboratory derangements and positive intra-abdominal imaging combined with a high index of suspicion can make the diagnosis. Treatment involves broad-spectrum antibiotics, anticoagulation, and source control of the primary nidus of infection. Our case presentation follows the successful clinical course of a young male diagnosed with acute appendicitis complicated by pylephlebitis. He was treated with antibiotics and anticoagulation followed by interval laparoscopic appendectomy with consequential resolution of thrombus on subsequent cross-sectional imaging.

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