DOI: 10.1177/10760296231189282 ISSN:

Rivaroxaban Versus Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins in a Broad Cohort of Patients With Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism: An Analysis of the OSCAR-US Program

Kimberly Snow Caroti, Alok A. Khorana, Cecilia Becattini, Agnes Y.Y. Lee, Anders Ekbom, Marc Carrier, Alexander T. Cohen, Christopher Brescia, Khaled Abdelgawwad, George Psaroudakis, Marcela Rivera, Bernhard Schaefer, Gunnar Brobert, Craig I. Coleman
  • Hematology
  • General Medicine

Cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (CAT) guidelines recommend direct oral anticoagulants as alternatives to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in most patients. This study compared the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus LMWH for a broad CAT cohort. The cohort study used electronic health data from January 2012 to December 2020 to evaluate patients with active cancer experiencing acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) and treated with rivaroxaban or LMWH. Propensity score-overlap weighted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTE, bleeding-related hospitalization, and all-cause mortality were calculated. In total, 4935 patients were identified (27.9% on rivaroxaban and 72.1% on LMWH). The cancer types included gastrointestinal (29.4%), genitourinary (26.2%), lung (24.0%), breast (19.7%), and hematologic (14.4%). Rivaroxaban was associated with a reduction in recurrent VTE versus LMWH among all patients with cancer (HR = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.61-0.99) at 3 months. No differences in bleeding-related hospitalization or all-cause mortality were observed. Directionally similar results to those at 3 months were observed at 6 months for all outcomes. In conclusion, we observed fewer recurrent VTE cases and no increase in bleeding-related hospitalizations with rivaroxaban versus LMWH at 3 months in this patient cohort with various cancer types.

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