DOI: 10.1177/10732748231195681 ISSN:

Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Aged 30–49 Years Old in Four African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Secondary Data Analysis

Melsew Setegn Alie, Yilkal Negesse, Mengistu Ayenew
  • Oncology
  • Hematology
  • General Medicine


Early-stage cervical cancer screening is essential for providing women with a better chance of receiving effective treatment for precancerous and cancer stages. Delay in cervical cancer screening results in late presentation and cancer metastasis. National-level cervical cancer screening in resource-limited countries was scarce and not well studied in Africa based on national data specifically in Kenya, Cameroon, Nambia, and Zimbabwe.


To determine the prevalence and determinants of cervical cancer screening among eligible women in Kenya, Cameroon, Nambia, and Zimbabwe.


This study analyzed demographic and health survey data from Kenya, Cameroon, Nambia, and Zimbabwe. The data were extracted and analyzed by STATA version 15 and further analysis was done. Intraclass correlation coefficient, median odds ratio, and proportional change in variance were calculated to check the appropriateness of multilevel analysis. Variables with P-value < .25 were selected for multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis. Finally, statistical significance between dependent and independent variables was assessed by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.


The prevalence of cervical cancer screening in 4 African countries (Nambia, Kenya, Cameroon, and Zimbabwe) was 23.4 [95%CI: 22.8-24.1]. The determinants identified in this study were women of age 41–50 years [AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.24, 1.73], rural residence [AOR = .67; 95% CI .55, .81], women who have their own work [AOR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.0, 1.37], smoking status [AOR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.17, 3.0], age at first birth >=35 [AOR = 5.27; 95% CI 1.29-21.52], condom use [AOR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.46,2.19], husbands having worked [AOR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.08,2.11], rich household wealth [AOR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.13,1.8], and having health insurance [AOR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.8,2.7].


The prevalence of cervical cancer screening in Kenya, Cameroon, Nambia, and Zimbabwe was low as compared to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Age, residence, work status, smoking status, women’s age at first birth, condom use, husbands having work, wealth status, and health insurance were the identified determinants of cervical cancer screening. Programme and policy interventions could address younger, rural residence women, poor wealth status women, women without work, and those who never use health insurance for the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

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