DOI: 10.1680/jener.23.00019 ISSN: 1751-4223

Review on municipal wastewater to energy generation; a favorable approach for developing countries

Masooma Batool, Laila Shahzad, Arifa Tahir
  • General Energy
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

The current study focuses on understanding municipal wastewater constituents and assessing technological options to harness the energy content of wastewater in developing countries. There are numerous research studies related to water treatment technologies and wastewater energy value. However, it remains to be seen which perspectives actually make technology adoption feasible. This study explores and presents the potential for some viable and innovative municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems as a paradigm shift towards resource recovery, energy neutrality, and the production of renewable energy by WWTPs. Various cost effective opportunities related to operational strategies, plant’ redesign, and the upgrading of current WWTPs that can foster self-reliant communities were visualized. Thermal (TH) and chemical pretreatments (CEPTs), sequential batch reactors (SBRs), anaerobic membrane fluidized bioreactors (MBR), Ammonia-Based Aeration Control (ABAC), and combined heat and power (CHP) systems can collectively contribute to energy recovery by WWTPs, with variability ranging from 85% to 111%. The study suggests that upgrading the system to become an energy self-reliant water treatment system outweighs the multimode costs associated with health and ecological damages by reducing diseases, pollution, and poor productivity regimes.

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