Steffen Overmann, Anya Vollpracht, Thomas Matschei

Reactivity of Calcined Clays as SCM—A Review

  • General Materials Science

Calcined mixed clays are one of the most promising alternative supplementary cementitious materials. However, their standardized use is difficult due to the wide range of compositions of the raw materials. The reactivity potential of different clays can hardly be estimated on the basis of simple characteristics so far. This review aims to identify and compile the factors that determine reactivity. At first, an overview of the methods to evaluate reactivity is presented in order to provide a definition of this term. Subsequently, the reactivity-determining factors are compiled and subdivided into the characteristics of the raw material (chemical and mineralogical composition), the parameters of calcination (furnace type, temperature, grain size, retention time, and cooling), and the characteristics of the calcined material (physical properties and amorphous phase). Interrelations are discussed qualitatively. In the second step, a quantitative literature analysis was conducted to quantify correlations between the different factors and reactivity. However, since the characterization methods in the literature are very different, the data can hardly be analyzed quantitatively. Consequently, this paper points out what information is needed to conduct profound, comparable studies to evaluate the reactivity potential of clays.

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