Wei Yan, Ziling He, Yong Luo, Weiyi Huang, Bo Zhu, Yi Zhong, Xuefeng Wang

Prevalence and characteristics of coronary artery fistulas among 20 259 patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • General Medicine

Background Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare coronary anomaly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical features, and imaging characteristics of CAF among patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG). Method This was a retrospective study including 20 259 consecutive patients (12 458 were male) who underwent CAG at our institution from September 2018 to March 2023. Electronic angiography records were reviewed, and a total of 86 (0.42%) CAF patients were enrolled and analyzed. Result Of the 86 CAF patients, 42 (49%) were male. Thus, the prevalence of CAF for males and females was 0.34% and 0.56%, respectively. Arrhythmia, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation, and LV systolic dysfunction were observed in 38, 25, 10 and 5 cases, respectively. Among the 86 CAF patients, a total of 117 CAFs were detected. 61 (71%) patients had a single CAF, and the remaining 25 (29%) patients had multiple CAFs. Of the 117 CAFs, the most common origins and terminations were the left anterior descending artery (n = 50) and the pulmonary artery (n = 73), respectively. The CAF diameters were greatly varied, ranging from unmeasurable to 7.8 mm, and 22 (18%) CAFs were larger than 3 mm. Conclusion In the present study, the prevalence of CAF was 0.42% with a female predilection. Arrhythmia, LV remodeling and dysfunction were common. Seventy-one percent of patients had a single CAF. The left anterior descending artery and the pulmonary artery were the most common origin and termination of CAFs, respectively. Most CAFs were small, and 18% of CAFs were larger than 3 mm.

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