Marta Kałużna-Oleksy, Helena Krysztofiak, Filip Sawczak, Agata Kukfisz, Magdalena Szczechla, Aleksandra Soloch, Maria Cierzniak, Alicja Szubarga, Katarzyna Przytarska, Magdalena Dudek, Izabella Uchmanowicz, Ewa Straburzyńska-Migaj

Sex differences in the nutritional status and its association with long-term prognosis in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a prospective cohort study

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Medical–Surgical Nursing
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Abstract Aims Many studies show the association between malnutrition and poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Our research aimed to analyse sex differences in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), emphasizing nutritional status and the influence of selected parameters on the prognosis. Methods and results We enrolled 276 consecutive patients diagnosed with HFrEF. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), and body mass index (BMI). The mean follow-up period was 564.4 ± 346.3 days. The analysed group included 81.2% of men. The median age was 58, interquartile range (IQR) 49–64 years. Among all patients, almost 60% were classified as NYHA III or IV. Half of the participants were at risk of malnutrition, and 2.9% were malnourished. During follow-up, 72 (26.1%) patients died. The female sex was not associated with a higher occurrence of malnutrition (P = 0.99) or nutritional risk (P = 0.85), according to MNA. Coherently, GNRI scores did not differ significantly between the sexes (P = 0.29). In contrast, BMI was significantly higher in males (29.4 ± 5.3 vs. 25.9 ± 4.7; P < 0.001). Impaired nutritional status assessed with any method (MNA, GNRI, BMI) was not significantly associated with a worse prognosis. In multivariable analysis, NYHA class, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), higher N-terminal fragment of proBNP, and higher uric acid were independent of sex and age predictors of all-cause mortality. Conclusion There were no sex differences in the nutritional status in the HFrEF patients, apart from lower BMI in females. Impaired nutritional status was not associated with mortality in both men and women.

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