DOI: 10.1002/ps.7753 ISSN:

Predicting the current and future distribution of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) based on the maximum entropy model

Jiaqiang Zhao, Xvbing Zou, Fei Yuan, Youqing Luo, Juan Shi
  • Insect Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • General Medicine



Monochamus carolinensis is an important vector of pinewood nematodes in North America that is under quarantine in several countries worldwide. The distribution of M. carolinensis was previously thought to be limited to North America; however, we discovered it during trapping in China in 2022. Using this discovery and information regarding the area of origin, we applied a machine learning algorithm based on the maximum entropy principle to predict the current and future (2050s, 2070s) potential distribution areas of M. carolinensis using bioclimatic variables.


The biological suitability of M. carolinensis was mainly driven by precipitation factors (BIO18, BIO15, BIO19), with 87.18% of the potential distribution areas located in South America, Asia, North America, and Africa. Future potential distribution areas of M. carolinensis are predicted to expand to high latitudes, with an average increase of 10,245,874.88 km2, and only 6.89% of the current suitable areas will become unsuitable. The potential distribution areas in 2070 are largest under the SSP585 scenario, with a 41.40% predicted increase (52,309,803.61 km2) above the current distribution, mainly reflecting an increase of the marginally and highly suitable areas.


The determination of dominant climatic factors and potential distribution areas will help provide an early warning for an M. carolinensis invasion, as well as provide a scientific basis for the spread, outbreak, and development of effective governmental prevention and control measures.

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