DOI: 10.3390/molecules29061265 ISSN: 1420-3049

Optimization of Antioxidant Activity of Compounds Generated during Ginseng Extract Fermentation Supplemented with Lactobacillus

Shuiqing Lin, Yuxiao Wu, Qian Huang, Zhiting Liu, Juan Xu, Ruifeng Ji, Natalia V. Slovesnova, Xin He, Lin Zhou
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Ginseng holds high medicinal and cosmetic value, with stem and leaf extracts garnering attention for their abundant bioactive ingredients. Meanwhile, fermentation can enhance the effectiveness of cosmetics. The aim of this study was to optimize ginseng fermentation to produce functional cosmetics. Ginseng stem and leaf extracts were fermented with five different strains of lactic acid bacteria. Using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (·OH), and superoxide anion (O2·−) scavenging activities as indicators, the fermentation process was optimized via response surface methodology. Finally, validation of the antioxidant activity of the optimized fermentation broth was performed using human skin cells (HaCaT and BJ cells). Based on the antioxidant potency composite comprehensive index, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 1.140 was selected, and the optimized parameters were a fermentation time of 35.50 h, an inoculum size of 2.45%, and a temperature of 28.20 °C. Optimized fermentation boosted antioxidant activity: DPPH scavenging activity increased by 25.00%, ·OH by 94.00%, and O2·− by 73.00%. Only the rare ginsenoside Rg5 showed a substantial rise in content among the 11 ginsenosides examined after fermentation. Furthermore, the flavonoid content and ·OH scavenging activity were significantly negatively correlated (r = −1.00, p < 0.05), while the Rh1 content and O2·− scavenging activity were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.998, p < 0.05). Both the 0.06% (v/v) and 0.25% (v/v) concentrations of the optimized broth significantly promoted cell proliferation, and notable protective effects against oxidative damage were observed in HaCaT cells when the broth was at 0.06%. Collectively, we demonstrated that ginseng fermentation extract effectively eliminates free radicals, preventing and repairing cellular oxidative damage. This study has identified new options for the use of fermented ginseng in functional cosmetics.

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