DOI: 10.3390/mi15030391 ISSN: 2072-666X

Nature-Inspired Superhydrophobic Coating Materials: Drawing Inspiration from Nature for Enhanced Functionality

Subodh Barthwal, Surbhi Uniyal, Sumit Barthwal
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering

Superhydrophobic surfaces, characterized by exceptional water repellency and self-cleaning properties, have gained significant attention for their diverse applications across industries. This review paper comprehensively explores the theoretical foundations, various fabrication methods, applications, and associated challenges of superhydrophobic surfaces. The theoretical section investigates the underlying principles, focusing on models such as Young’s equation, Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter states, and the dynamics of wetting. Various fabrication methods are explored, ranging from microstructuring and nanostructuring techniques to advanced material coatings, shedding light on the evolution of surface engineering. The extensive applications of superhydrophobic surfaces, spanning from self-cleaning technologies to oil–water separation, are systematically discussed, emphasizing their potential contributions to diverse fields such as healthcare, energy, and environmental protection. Despite their promising attributes, superhydrophobic surfaces also face significant challenges, including durability and scalability issues, environmental concerns, and limitations in achieving multifunctionality, which are discussed in this paper. By providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of superhydrophobic research, this review aims to guide future investigations and inspire innovations in the development and utilization of these fascinating surfaces.

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