DOI: 10.3390/pollutants3030025 ISSN: 2673-4672

Nano-Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals from Soil: A Critical Review

Priyanka Prakash, Smitha Chandran S
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • General Environmental Science

Heavy metal pollution is one of the major global issues arising from various anthropogenic activities. The natural habitat and human health may be at peril from heavy metal exposure since they are tenacious, bio-accumulative, and non-biodegradable. Therefore, eradicating heavy metals from the soil ecosystem is a crucial responsibility to create a secure, viable, and zero-waste ecosystem. There are numerous techniques for eliminating heavy metals from the environment, but each has its own benefits and drawbacks. When a biological agent is used to degrade pollutants, this process is called bioremediation. Nano-phytoremediation, an emerging bioremediation approach in the field of nanotechnology, uses biosynthesized nanoparticles and plant species for the removal of toxic heavy metals from the environment. It is an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly technique. The adverse consequences of metal exposure on different plant species have been discovered to be greatly reduced by engineered nanomaterials. Because of their tiny dimensions and huge surface area, nanomaterials have an attraction towards metals and can thus quickly enter the contaminated zone of ecosystems that are metal-challenged. The current review provides an overview of various aspects of nano-phytoremediation for heavy metal remediation.

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