DOI: 10.3390/rs15153790 ISSN: 2072-4292

LMDFS: A Lightweight Model for Detecting Forest Fire Smoke in UAV Images Based on YOLOv7

Gong Chen, Renxi Cheng, Xufeng Lin, Wanguo Jiao, Di Bai, Haifeng Lin
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences

Forest fires pose significant hazards to ecological environments and economic society. The detection of forest fire smoke can provide crucial information for the suppression of early fires. Previous detection models based on deep learning have been limited in detecting small smoke and smoke with smoke-like interference. In this paper, we propose a lightweight model for forest fire smoke detection that is suitable for UAVs. Firstly, a smoke dataset is created from a combination of forest smoke photos obtained through web crawling and enhanced photos generated by using the method of synthesizing smoke. Secondly, the GSELAN and GSSPPFCSPC modules are built based on Ghost Shuffle Convolution (GSConv), which efficiently reduces the number of parameters in the model and accelerates its convergence speed. Next, to address the problem of indistinguishable feature boundaries between clouds and smoke, we integrate coordinate attention (CA) into the YOLO feature extraction network to strengthen the extraction of smoke features and attenuate the background information. Additionally, we use Content-Aware Reassembly of FEatures (CARAFE) upsampling to expand the receptive field in the feature fusion network and fully exploit the semantic information. Finally, we adopt SCYLLA-Intersection over Union (SIoU) loss as a replacement for the original loss function in the prediction phase. This substitution leads to improved convergence efficiency and faster convergence. The experimental results demonstrate that the LMDFS model proposed for smoke detection achieves an accuracy of 80.2% with a 5.9% improvement compared to the baseline and a high number of Frames Per Second (FPS)—63.4. The model also reduces the parameter count by 14% and Giga FLoating-point Operations Per second (GFLOPs) by 6%. These results suggest that the proposed model can achieve a high accuracy while requiring fewer computational resources, making it a promising approach for practical deployment in applications for detecting smoke.

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