DOI: 10.3390/jcp3030025 ISSN: 2624-800X

Autonomous Vehicles: Sophisticated Attacks, Safety Issues, Challenges, Open Topics, Blockchain, and Future Directions

Anastasios Giannaros, Aristeidis Karras, Leonidas Theodorakopoulos, Christos Karras, Panagiotis Kranias, Nikolaos Schizas, Gerasimos Kalogeratos, Dimitrios Tsolis
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • General Environmental Science

Autonomous vehicles (AVs), defined as vehicles capable of navigation and decision-making independent of human intervention, represent a revolutionary advancement in transportation technology. These vehicles operate by synthesizing an array of sophisticated technologies, including sensors, cameras, GPS, radar, light imaging detection and ranging (LiDAR), and advanced computing systems. These components work in concert to accurately perceive the vehicle’s environment, ensuring the capacity to make optimal decisions in real-time. At the heart of AV functionality lies the ability to facilitate intercommunication between vehicles and with critical road infrastructure—a characteristic that, while central to their efficacy, also renders them susceptible to cyber threats. The potential infiltration of these communication channels poses a severe threat, enabling the possibility of personal information theft or the introduction of malicious software that could compromise vehicle safety. This paper offers a comprehensive exploration of the current state of AV technology, particularly examining the intersection of autonomous vehicles and emotional intelligence. We delve into an extensive analysis of recent research on safety lapses and security vulnerabilities in autonomous vehicles, placing specific emphasis on the different types of cyber attacks to which they are susceptible. We further explore the various security solutions that have been proposed and implemented to address these threats. The discussion not only provides an overview of the existing challenges but also presents a pathway toward future research directions. This includes potential advancements in the AV field, the continued refinement of safety measures, and the development of more robust, resilient security mechanisms. Ultimately, this paper seeks to contribute to a deeper understanding of the safety and security landscape of autonomous vehicles, fostering discourse on the intricate balance between technological advancement and security in this rapidly evolving field.

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