Enas E. Hussein, Abdessamed Derdour, Bilel Zerouali, Abdulrazak Almaliki, Yong Jie Wong, Manuel Ballesta-de los Santos, Pham Minh Ngoc, Mofreh A. Hashim, Ahmed Elbeltagi

Groundwater Quality Assessment and Irrigation Water Quality Index Prediction Using Machine Learning Algorithms

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Aquatic Science
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Biochemistry

The evaluation of groundwater quality is crucial for irrigation purposes; however, due to financial constraints in developing countries, such evaluations suffer from insufficient sampling frequency, hindering comprehensive assessments. Therefore, associated with machine learning approaches and the irrigation water quality index (IWQI), this research aims to evaluate the groundwater quality in Naama, a region in southwest Algeria. Hydrochemical parameters (cations, anions, pH, and EC), qualitative indices (SAR, RSC, Na%, MH, and PI), as well as geospatial representations were used to determine the groundwater’s suitability for irrigation in the study area. In addition, efficient machine learning approaches for forecasting IWQI utilizing Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Support vector regression (SVR), and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) models were implemented. In this research, 166 groundwater samples were used to calculate the irrigation index. The results showed that 42.18% of them were of excellent quality, 34.34% were of very good quality, 6.63% were good quality, 9.64% were satisfactory, and 4.21% were considered unsuitable for irrigation. On the other hand, results indicate that XGBoost excels in accuracy and stability, with a low RMSE (of 2.8272 and a high R of 0.9834. SVR with only four inputs (Ca2+, Mg2⁺, Na⁺, and K) demonstrates a notable predictive capability with a low RMSE of 2.6925 and a high R of 0.98738, while KNN showcases robust performance. The distinctions between these models have important implications for making informed decisions in agricultural water management and resource allocation within the region.

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