DOI: 10.1177/26348535231217806 ISSN: 2634-8535

Deficiency of Natural Anticoagulants Involves in the Occurrence of Arterial Thrombosis

Thi Tuyet Mai Nguyen, Minh Phuong Vu, Tuan Tung Nguyen, Hai Yen Duong
  • Hematology


The role of natural anticoagulant deficiency in the development of arterial thrombosis (AT) is controversial.


Our objectives were to assess the deficiency of natural anticoagulants, including protein S (PS), protein C (PC), antithrombin III (AT III) and their involvement in the occurrence of AT.


Retrospective cross-sectional study.


This study was conducted in 585 patients who were examined with PS, PC, and AT III tests. The activity of PC, PS (men, women), and ATIII under 70%, 75%, 60%, and 80% was recognized as a deficiency, respectively. Peripheral blood cell and coagulation tests were performed before starting treatment. Patients with previous AT, venous thromboembolism (VTE) or anticoagulant therapy were excluded.


Patients without thrombosis were 222 (38%), patients with newly diagnosed VTE were 281 (48%), and patients with newly diagnosed AT were 82 (14%). The most common AT sites were in the lungs, brain, and lower extremities (31.2%, 20.8%, and 20.8%, respectively). Compared to the nonthrombosis group, the AT group had a lower PS activity (%) (82.77 ± 24.09 vs 91.31 ± 27.27), a higher fibrinogen (g/L) (4.25 ± 1.68 vs 3.74 ± 1.51), a higher D-dimer (mg/L FEU) (6.16 vs 1.95), and a higher neutrophil count (G/L) (8.57 vs 6.50) with P < .05. Compared to the VTE group, the AT group had higher hemoglobin (g/L) (135.95 ± 23.75 vs 129.02 ± 25.22) and a higher neutrophil count (G/L) (8.57 vs 7.28) ( P < .05). In the AT group, the frequencies of PC, PS, and AT III deficiency were 23.1%, 28%, and 17.1%, respectively. The AT group had a higher frequency of PS deficiency than the nonthrombosis group (28% vs 17.1%, P = .035). Patients with PS deficiency had a higher risk of AT compared to those without PS deficiency (OR = 1.888, 95% CI [1.041-3.422], P = .036).


PS deficiency may be considered a factor in increasing the risk of AT.

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