DOI: 10.3390/life14010013 ISSN: 2075-1729

Chronic Kidney Disease Interplay with Comorbidities and Carbohydrate Metabolism: A Review

Radha Kushwaha, Pothabathula Seshu Vardhan, Prem Prakash Kushwaha
  • Paleontology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a global health challenge, engendering various physiological and metabolic shifts that significantly impact health and escalate the susceptibility to severe illnesses. This comprehensive review delves into the intricate complexities of CKD, scrutinizing its influence on cellular growth homeostasis, hormonal equilibrium, wasting, malnutrition, and its interconnectedness with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases. Exploring the genetic, birth-related, and comorbidity factors associated with CKD, alongside considerations of metabolic disturbances, anemia, and malnutrition, the review elucidates how CKD orchestrates cellular growth control. A pivotal focus lies on the nexus between CKD and insulin resistance, where debates persist regarding its chronological relationship with impaired kidney function. The prevalence of insulin abnormalities in CKD is emphasized, contributing to glucose intolerance and raising questions about its role as a precursor or consequence. Moreover, the review sheds light on disruptions in the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor axis in CKD, underscoring the heightened vulnerability to illness and mortality in cases of severe growth retardation. Wasting, a prevalent concern affecting up to 75% of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, is analyzed, elucidating the manifestations of cachexia and its impact on appetite, energy expenditure, and protein reserves. Taste disturbances in CKD, affecting sour, umami, and salty tastes, are explored for their implications on food palatability and nutritional status. Independent of age and gender, these taste alterations have the potential to sway dietary choices, further complicating the management of CKD. The intricate interplay between CKD, inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases is unraveled, emphasizing the profound repercussions on overall health. Additionally, the review extends its analysis to CKD’s broader impact on cognitive function, emotional well-being, taste perception, and endothelial dysfunction. Concluding with an emphasis on dietary interventions as crucial components in CKD management, this comprehensive review navigates the multifaceted dimensions of CKD, providing a nuanced understanding essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies.

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