Karen Sliwa, Charle Andre Viljoen, Simon Stewart, Mark R Miller, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Krishna Kumar, Friedrich Thienemann, Daniel Piniero, Poornima Prabhakaran, Jagat Narula, Fausto Pinto

Cardiovascular Disease in Low-and Middle-Income Countries Associated with Environmental Factors

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Epidemiology

Abstract There is a growing recognition that the profound environmental changes that have occurred over the past century pose threats to human health. Many of these environmental factors, including air pollution, noise pollution, as well as exposure to metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and other metals, are particularly detrimental to the cardiovascular health of people living in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). LMICs are likely to be disproportionally burdened by cardiovascular diseases provoked by environmental factors. Moreover, they have the least capacity to address the core drivers and consequences of this phenomenon. This review summarizes the impact of environmental factors such as climate change, air pollution and metal exposure on the cardiovascular system, and how these specifically affect people living in LMICs. It also outlines how behaviour changes and interventions that reduce environmental pollution would have significant effects on the cardiovascular health of those from LMICs, and globally.

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