Antonio Euan‐Canto, Julio César Torres‐Romero, María Elizbeth Alvarez‐Sánchez, Victor Ermilo Arana‐Argáez, Karla Acosta‐Viana, Emanuel Ceballos‐Góngora, Laura Vázquez‐Carrillo, Leidi Alvarez‐Sánchez

Activation of murine macrophages by membrane proteins from Tritrichomonas foetus grown on iron‐ and calcium‐rich conditions

  • Immunology
  • Parasitology

AbstractTritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that causes a venereal disease in cattle limiting reproduction by abortions and sterility. The immune response against this parasite is poorly understood. Since the iron and calcium ions are important regulators of the microenvironment of the urogenital tract in cattle, we decided to evaluate the role of these divalent cations on the antigenicity of membrane proteins of T. foetus on macrophage activation as one of the first inflammatory responses towards this pathogen. Colorimetric methods and ELISA were used to detect the nitric oxide and oxygen peroxide production and expression of cytokines in culture supernatant from macrophage incubated with membrane proteins from T. foetus cultured in iron‐ and calcium‐rich conditions. qRT‐PCR assays were used to evaluate the transcript expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response on the macrophages. The membrane proteins used for in vitro stimulation caused the up‐regulation of the iNOS and NOX‐2 genes as well as the generation of NO and H2O2 in murine macrophages on a dependent way of the metal concentrations. Additionally, after stimulation, macrophages showed a considerable rise in pro‐inflammatory cytokines and a downregulation of anti‐inflammatory cytokines, as well as up‐regulation in the transcription of the TLR4 and MyD88 genes. These data suggest that membrane proteins of T. foetus induced by iron and calcium can activate an inflammatory specific macrophage response via TLR4/MyD88 signalling pathway.

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