Łukasz Suprewicz, Magdalena Zakrzewska, Sławomir Okła, Katarzyna Głuszek, Alicja Sadzyńska, Piotr Deptuła, Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Robert Bucki

Extracellular vimentin as a modulator of the immune response and an important player during infectious diseases

  • Cell Biology
  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

AbstractVimentin, an intermediate filament protein primarily recognized for its intracellular role in maintaining cellular structure, has recently garnered increased attention and emerged as a pivotal extracellular player in immune regulation and host–pathogen interactions. While the functions of extracellular vimentin were initially overshadowed by its cytoskeletal role, accumulating evidence now highlights its significance in diverse physiological and pathological events. This review explores the multifaceted role of extracellular vimentin in modulating immune responses and orchestrating interactions between host cells and pathogens. It delves into the mechanisms underlying vimentin's release into the extracellular milieu, elucidating its unconventional secretion pathways and identifying critical molecular triggers. In addition, the future perspectives of using extracellular vimentin in diagnostics and as a target protein in the treatment of diseases are discussed.

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