DOI: 10.1097/txd.0000000000001609 ISSN: 2373-8731

Acellular Perfusate is an Adequate Alternative to Packed Red Blood Cells During Normothermic Human Kidney Perfusion

Alban Longchamp, Fermin M. Fontan, Mohamed M. Aburawi, Corey Eymard, Negin Karimian, Danielle Detelich, Casie Pendexter, Stephanie Cronin, Thomas Agius, Sonal Nagpal, Peony Dutta Banik, Shannon N. Tessier, Sinan Ozer, Francis L. Delmonico, Korkut Uygun, Heidi Yeh, James F. Markmann
  • Transplantation


Brief normothermic machine perfusion is increasingly used to assess and recondition grafts before transplant. During normothermic machine perfusion, metabolic activity is typically maintained using red blood cell (RBC)–based solutions. However, the utilization of RBCs creates important logistical constraints. This study explored the feasibility of human kidney normothermic perfusion using William’s E–based perfusate with no additional oxygen carrier.


Sixteen human kidneys declined for transplant were perfused with a perfusion solution containing packed RBCs or William’s E medium only for 6 h using a pressure-controlled system. The temperature was set at 37 °C. Renal artery resistance, oxygen extraction, metabolic activity, energy metabolism, and histological features were evaluated.


Baseline donor demographics were similar in both groups. Throughout perfusion, kidneys perfused with William’s E exhibited improved renal flow (P = 0.041) but similar arterial resistance. Lactic acid levels remained higher in kidneys perfused with RBCs during the first 3 h of perfusion but were similar thereafter (P = 0.95 at 6 h). Throughout perfusion, kidneys from both groups exhibited comparable behavior regarding oxygen consumption (P = 0.41) and reconstitution of ATP tissue concentration (P = 0.55). Similarly, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels were preserved during perfusion. There was no evidence of histological damage caused by either perfusate.


In human kidneys, William’s E medium provides a logistically convenient, off-the-shelf alternative to packed RBCs for up to 6 h of normothermic machine perfusion.

More from our Archive