DOI: 10.1002/advs.202308034 ISSN: 2198-3844

A Slug Flow Platform with Multiple Process Analytics Facilitates Flexible Reaction Optimization

Florian Wagner, Peter Sagmeister, Clemens E. Jusner, Thomas G. Tampone, Vidhyadhar Manee, Frederic G. Buono, Jason D. Williams, C. Oliver Kappe
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • General Engineering
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • General Materials Science
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


Flow processing offers many opportunities to optimize reactions in a rapid and automated manner, yet often requires relatively large quantities of input materials. To combat this, the use of a flexible slug flow reactor, equipped with two analytical instruments, for low‐volume optimization experiments are reported. A Buchwald–Hartwig amination toward the drug olanzapine, with 6 independent optimizable variables, is optimized using three different automated approaches: self‐optimization, design of experiments, and kinetic modeling. These approaches are complementary and provide differing information on the reaction: pareto optimal operating points, response surface models, and mechanistic models, respectively. The results are achieved using <10% of the material that would be required for standard flow operation. Finally, a chemometric model is built utilizing automated data handling and three subsequent validation experiments demonstrate good agreement between the slug flow reactor and a standard (larger scale) flow reactor.

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