A global view of the human post-translational modification landscapeNaoya Kitamura, James J. Galligan
- Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) provide a rapid response to stimuli, finely tuning metabolism and gene expression and maintain homeostasis. Advances in mass spectrometry over the past two decades have significantly expanded the list of known PTMs in biology and as instrumentation continues to improve, this list will surely grow. While many PTMs have been studied in detail (e.g. phosphorylation, acetylation), the vast majority lack defined mechanisms for their regulation and impact on cell fate. In this review, we will highlight the field of PTM research as it currently stands, discussing the mechanisms that dictate site specificity, analytical methods for their detection and study, and the chemical tools that can be leveraged to define PTM regulation. In addition, we will highlight the approaches needed to discover and validate novel PTMs. Lastly, this review will provide a starting point for those interested in PTM biology, providing a comprehensive list of PTMs and what is known regarding their regulation and metabolic origins.