DOI: 10.1093/bjs/znad258.679 ISSN:

909 Current Challenges and Future Prospects of Osseointegration Limb Reconstruction for Amputees

M A Akhtar, C Low, C Blacklock, C Tiemessen, J S Hoellwarth, M Al Muderis, K Tetsworth
  • Surgery



The field of osseointegration has existed for almost 30 years and now appears to be on the verge of greater acceptance and widespread implementation. We reviewed the current challenges and future prospects of osseointegration limb reconstruction.


A scoping review of the literature was conducted by researchers with an interest in Osseoinegration and key papers were identified and summarized.


The 3 biggest challenges identified included Risk of Infection, High Cost and lack of outcome measures.

The solutions identified for the advances in Infection prevention and control included; Smart Implant Coating, Mechanical inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biofilm erradication, Simultaneous Monitoring of Loosening and Temperature in Orthopaedic Implants, Realtime information on implant infection, Adjuvant therapeutic agents-Delivery Options, Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials, Nanobiotechnology- Prevention and Treatment of Orthopaedic Implant Associated Infection.

In order to cut the cost, we noted the following Advances in Production and Biomaterials; Three-dimensional (3D) Printing, Customised Implants, Natural Medicinal Compounds in Bone Tissue Engineering, Cost Effectiveness of 3D Printing implants, Meta-biomaterials, Functionalization of 3D-printed titanium alloy orthopedic implants.

We noted the following advances in Designs and feedback of Prosthetics; SMART (sensing, measuring, and advanced reporting technology) Implants, Technological Advances in Prosthesis Design and Rehabilitation, Biofeedback to Improve the Performance of Myoelectric Pattern Recognition, Neurophysiological Evaluation of Haptic Feedback for Myoelectric Prostheses.


We believe that the future of amputee rehabilitation is bright with the advances in implant manufacturing, biofeedback, and infection prevention.

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