DOI: 10.1093/bjs/znad258.053 ISSN:

745 The Effect of 3D Versus 2D Training Models in Laparoscopic Skills Acquisition: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Novice Medical Students

G Alampritis, C Rossou, B Patel
  • Surgery



Determining whether the effect of laparoscopic technical skills acquisition will be superior with the use of low-fidelity 3D training models with contours compared to flat, 2D LapPass training models in novice medical students.


This was a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomised equally into either 3D or 2D group and performed two standardised laparoscopic tasks: (1) grasping and manipulation and (2) intracorporeal suturing on separate days. Performance was based on the GOALS tool, completion time and number of errors via 3 assessments (baseline, interim and post-training) each session. A post-study survey was used to measure participant-perceived confidence and performance.


Sixty-two participants completed the study from April to June 2022. The two groups were homogenous regarding demographic data (p>0.05). Both groups had significantly superior performance post-training compared to baseline in the two tasks via the intra-group comparison (p<0.017). In the inter-group comparison, the 3D group had statistically significantly greater improvements in GOALS score parameter and depth perception domain in all comparisons in the two tasks (p<0.05). The time improvement and error reduction also favoured the 3D group. In the post-study survey, the 3D group reported significantly greater perceived post-training confidence and performance in the suturing task only (p<0.05).


The 3D training models resulted in a superior laparoscopic skills acquisition for novices in two tasks compared to 2D LapPass training models and should be incorporated into laparoscopic training curricula. Further work should focus on their long-term efficacy on a competency-based endpoint.

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