3D Simulation of Debris Flows with the Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian Method and an Investigation of the RunoutHaoding Xu, Xuzhen He, Feng Shan, Gang Niu, Daichao Sheng
- General Mathematics
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Computer Science (miscellaneous)
In landslide risk management, it is important to estimate the run-out distance of landslides (or debris flows) such that the consequences can be estimated. This research presents an innovative array of dimensionless equations that effectively estimate run-out distances, supported by both experimental data and numerical simulations. We employ the coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) method to confront the challenges presented in large deformations during landslides. The soil is modelled using the Mohr–Coulomb model, and the failure of cohesionless soil slopes (e.g., sand slopes) is studied. The simulation results are used to study the characteristics of flows and run-out distances. We suggest a normalized run-out and introduce new scaling relationships for it under different conditions such as different plane angles and material properties. The granular flows under different scales can be compared directly with this new scaling law. The new relationships are validated by both experimental and numerical data. Our analysis reveals that the normalized run-out distance in debris flows is contingent on the initial geometry, plane angle, and material properties. An increase in debris volume and plane angle can contribute to an increase in the normalized run-out distance, while a rise in friction angles causes a decrease. In the case of landslides, the normalized run-out distance depends on material properties and the slope angle. An increase in slope angle leads to a corresponding increase in the normalized run-out distance.