DOI: 10.1093/bjs/znad258.625 ISSN:

206 Outcome Measures Reported Following Feminising Genital Reconstructive Surgery for Gender Affirmation in Transgender Women and Gender Diverse Individuals: A Systematic Review

D Iakovou, T Pidgeon, T Franchi, A C Q Lo, G Matthew, H V Shah, M R Borrelli, C Sohrabi, T Rashid
  • Surgery



The comparison of differing methods of gender affirming feminising genital reconstructive surgery (fGRS) in transgender women and gender diverse individuals may be confounded by variable outcome reporting and the use of inconsistent outcomes and definitions.


This systematic review examined all outcomes and outcome definitions reported in published studies after gender affirming fGRS in transgender women. Candidate studies were sourced via an electronic, multi-database literature search. Search terms were broad to maximise capture of fGRS procedures. All primary, clinical research studies were included with no date limits. Paired collaborators screened each study for inclusion and performed data extraction.


After screening 1225 studies, 93 studies proceeded to data extraction, representing 7681 patients. 2621 separate individual outcomes were reported, 857 (32.7%) were defined, and the time of outcome assessment was given for 1856 outcomes (70.8%) but relied on wide, non-specific ranges of follow-up dates. 24 discreet outcomes were reported 10 or more times and comprised 20.7% of all outcomes reported. Profound heterogeneity existed in the definitions used for these and for all outcomes reported in general. Only 6 studies declared a primary outcome.


Outcomes and outcome definitions reported following fGRS in transgender women and gender diverse individuals were varied and heterogenous. Improved outcome definitions and the adoption of a consistent Core Outcome Set will aid the fair comparison of future studies evaluating the outcomes of fGRS. This review is the first step in the process of developing such a Core Outcome Set.

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