DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2024.319-328 ISSN: 2231-0916

Use of irradiated chitosan as a matrix for slow-release urea and in vitro fermentation characteristics of slow-release urea supplementation in ruminant rations

Wahidin Teguh Sasongko, Teguh Wahyono, Dewi Apri Astuti, Akhmad Rasyid Syahputra, Slamet Widodo, Anuraga Jayanegara
  • General Veterinary

Background and Aim: Irradiated chitosan can be used as a matrix for slow-release urea (SRU) production. This study aimed to (1) determine the optimal formulation of irradiated chitosan matrix for controlling nitrogen release and (2) evaluate the characteristics of SRU in vitro fermentation based on irradiated chitosan as a feed supplement. Materials and Methods: In the first phase of the investigation, four chitosan-based SRU formulations with varying amounts of acrylamide (3 and 5 g) and gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, and ammonia release characteristics were used to observe morphological, functional group, and ammonia release characteristics. In the second phase of research, the most effective SRU formulation was utilized as a supplement to ruminant rations based on rice straw, sorghum straw, and alfalfa. Gas production, rumen fermentation characteristics, and methane gas production were observed in vitro. Results: On the basis of surface image analysis, the four SRU formulas generate a similar appearance. Compared with untreated urea, the SRU3 formula reduced the percentage of ammonia emission by 12.85%–27.64% after 24 h of incubation (p = 0.05), as determined by the first phase study. SRU3 became the basis for the second testing phase. The addition of SRU3 did not affect the optimal gas production in vitro. SRU3 treatment produced less gas than Optigen® treatment (p = 0.05). With regard to rumen fermentation and digestibility, Optigen® yielded better results than SRU3 (p = 0.05). However, the treatment with SRU3 resulted in reduced methane production compared to that in the control (p = 0.05). Conclusion: Irradiated chitosan as an SRU matrix may control the release of ammonia in the rumen medium. The SRU3 formulation is the most effective. The addition of SRU to rice straw-based rations reduces methane production without affecting in vitro digestibility. Keywords: fermentation characteristics, irradiated chitosan, ruminant, slow-release urea.

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