DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2024.329-336 ISSN: 2231-0916

Circulation of foot-and-mouth disease serotypes, risk factors, and their effect on hematological and biochemical profiles among cattle and buffalo in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan

Daud Khan, Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Asad Ullah, Khushal Khan Kasi, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa, Zia Ud Din, Ismail Anwar, Niamatullah Kakar, Abdul Waheed
  • General Veterinary

Background and Aim: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including buffalo, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs, causing major economic losses to the local farmers and, overall, to the national economy of the country. This study aimed to detect FMDV serotypes in year-round FMD outbreaks, hematological and biochemical changes, and oxidative stress in FMDV-infected cattle and buffaloes in the district of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan, and the socioeconomic impact of FMD outbreaks on farmers. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the district of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan, where FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hematological, biochemical, and oxidative analyses were performed by analyzing the blood of FMDV-infected and non-infected animals. Information on the associated risk factors was obtained through a structured questionnaire by interviewing farmers in each FMD-affected farm. Results: Thirty-four out of 38 farms (89%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 75%–97%) were positive for FMD by ELISA. Higher FMD infection was detected in farms with a herd size of <50 animals (50%, 17/34), followed by >100 animals (32%, 11/34) and 51–100 animals (18%, 6/34). Fifty-seven percent (114/200, 95% CI: 50%-64%) of animals were positive for FMD. Of these, 61% (69/114) were cattle and 39% (45/114) were buffalo. FMD positivity was higher in females (86%, 98/114) than in males (14%, 16/114) and higher in animals older than 2 years of age (52%, 59/114). On average, farmers lose U.S. dollars 3000 annually due to FMD outbreaks. Animals infected with FMDV had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) white blood cell counts and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower hemoglobin and total protein concentrations in buffalo and cattle, whereas infected cattle showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower albumin levels. Globulin levels were lower in buffaloes infected. Alanine aminotransferase levels were lower in infected cattle (p ≤ 0.05). Creatinine levels were higher in infected buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). Urea and phosphorus concentrations were higher in FMDV-infected cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). Calcium levels were lower in infected cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). Catalase enzyme activity in infected cattle and buffaloes was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in FMDV-infected cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: This study confirmed serotype O circulation among cattle and buffalo in year-long FMD outbreaks in the Quetta District of Balochistan. Blood analysis identified a parameter deviated from the normal level due to FMDV infection. In addition, the outbreak of FMD has a significant negative economic impact on livestock farmers. Keywords: buffalo, cattle, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, foot-and-mouth disease, Quetta, serotype.

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