DOI: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000002460 ISSN: 0002-9270

Update on Endoscopic Dysplasia Surveillance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Nayantara Coelho-Prabhu, James D. Lewis
  • Gastroenterology
  • Hepatology

As medical management of inflammatory bowel disease makes great advances, most patients with inflammatory bowel disease will have long life expectancies without need for total colectomy. With prolonged disease duration, however, there is increased risk of dysplasia leading to colorectal cancer. Multiple consensus and guideline documents have been published over the last decade with recommendations to optimize early detection and management of dysplastic lesions. Endoscopic technology has improved tremendously, even over the past few years. Previously invisible dysplasia has become visible in most cases with advanced imaging technologies that now allow for much clearer and more detailed mucosal inspection. New tools to facilitate endoscopic resection of visible lesions have also enabled patients to avoid colectomy, with resulting need to continue colon surveillance. There are limited or conflicting data leading to inconsistent recommendations regarding the need for random biopsies, the preferred endoscopic imaging technique, and surveillance intervals after resection of dysplasia. Similarly, there remains significant variability in the application of guidelines into daily practice and availability of and training with advanced imaging technologies. Here, we present a narrative review of which patients are at highest risk for dysplasia, the current guidelines on surveillance colonoscopy, factors affecting optimal mucosal visualization, enhanced imaging techniques, standardized reporting terminologies for surveillance colonoscopy, endoscopic management of dysplasia, indications for colectomy, and briefly on future potential technologies to assist in dysplasia detection.

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