DOI: 10.1177/15266028231215225 ISSN: 1526-6028

Ultrasound-Assessed Lesion Morphology and Drug-Coated Balloon Treatment for de novo Dysfunctional Arteriovenous Fistula in Hemodialysis Patients

Kotaro Suemitsu, Tatsuya Shiraki, Osamu Iida, Kanako Oka, Naomi Ota, Masaaki Izumi
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Surgery


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ultrasound-assessed lesion morphology on the outcomes of drug-coated balloon (DCB) versus plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) treatment for de novo dysfunctional arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) lesions.


This single-center retrospective study enrolled 114 consecutive patients (mean age, 73 ± 10 years; male, 69%) with de novo dysfunctional AVF lesions who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) using DCB (n = 48) and POBA (n = 66). The morphology of the stenotic lesions, evaluated using ultrasonography, was classified into intimal hyperplasia and shrinking types. The outcome measure was 12-month primary patency. Factors associated with loss of primary patency were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models.


The baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 treatment groups. The 12-month primary patency rate was significantly higher in the DCB group than in the POBA group (66.8 ± 7.1% versus 35.9 ± 6.3%, P = .006). The 12-month primary patency rate in the lesions with intimal hyperplasia type was not significantly different (DCB: 70.3 ± 9.5% versus POBA: 45.9 ± 8.0%; P = .310), whereas that in the shrinking type was significantly higher in the DCB group than in the POBA group (61.9 ± 10.6% versus 15.2 ± 8.1%; P < .001). The interaction analysis demonstrated that lesion morphology had a significantly different hazard ratio (HR) for restenosis between the POBA and DCB groups (P for interaction = .031). The multivariate analysis revealed that DCB usage (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.28, 0.87]; P = .015), ultrasound-assessed lesion morphology (shrinking type: aHR, 1.77; 95% CI: [1.07, 2.93]; P = .026), and location of stenosis (aHR, 2.26; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.46; P = .018) were significantly associated with AVF patency after PTA.


This study revealed that lesion morphology evaluated using ultrasonography had a differential impact on DCB and POBA outcomes. The therapeutic effect of DCB was unexpectedly confirmed in the shrinking type.

Clinical Impact

The effectiveness of DCB in inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation in intimal hyperplasia lesions was expected based on the known mechanism of action of paclitaxel. However the therapeutic effect of DCB was unexpectedly confirmed in the shrinking type too. We may not need to hesitate usage of DCB for shrinking type.

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