DOI: 10.1002/jcc.27204 ISSN:

Total and orbital density‐based analyses of molecules revealing long‐range interaction regions

Masatoshi Hasebe, Takuro Tsutsumi, Tetsuya Taketsugu, Takao Tsuneda
  • Computational Mathematics
  • General Chemistry


Total and orbital electron densities of molecules are explored for the effect of the long‐range correction (LC) for density functional theory (DFT) exchange functionals by comparing to the effect of the ab initio coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method. Calculating the LC effect on the total electron densities shows that the LC stabilizes the electrons around the long‐range interaction regions of kinetic energy density, which are assumed to be electrons other than free electrons and self‐interacting electrons, while the CCSD method stabilizes the electrons in the long‐range interaction regions in the vertical molecular planes. As a more precise test, the LC effect on orbital densities are compared to the CCSD effect on Dyson orbital densities. Surprisingly, these effects are similar for the unoccupied orbitals, indicating that the LC covers the effects required to reproduce the CCSD Dyson unoccupied orbitals. For exploring the discrepancies between these effects on the occupied orbitals, the photoionization cross sections are calculated as a direct test for the shapes of the HOMOs to investigate the differences between these effects on the occupied orbitals. Consequently, the LC clearly produces the canonical HOMOs close to the CCSD Dyson and experimental ones, except for the HOMO of benzene molecule that mixes with the HOMO1 for the CCSD Dyson orbitals. This indicates that the orbital analyses using the photoionization cross sections are available as a direct test for the quality of DFT functionals.

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