Farzaneh Fakharian, Siva Thirugnanam, David A. Welsh, Woong-Ki Kim, Jay Rappaport, Kyle Bittinger, Namita Rout

The Role of Gut Dysbiosis in the Loss of Intestinal Immune Cell Functions and Viral Pathogenesis

  • Virology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology

The gut microbiome plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and immune function. However, dysbiosis, an imbalance in microbiome composition, can have profound effects on various aspects of human health, including susceptibility to viral infections. Despite numerous studies investigating the influence of viral infections on gut microbiome, the impact of gut dysbiosis on viral infection and pathogenesis remains relatively understudied. The clinical variability observed in SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal influenza infections, and the presence of natural HIV suppressors, suggests that host-intrinsic factors, including the gut microbiome, may contribute to viral pathogenesis. The gut microbiome has been shown to influence the host immune system by regulating intestinal homeostasis through interactions with immune cells. This review aims to enhance our understanding of how viral infections perturb the gut microbiome and mucosal immune cells, affecting host susceptibility and response to viral infections. Specifically, we focus on exploring the interactions between gamma delta (γδ) T cells and gut microbes in the context of inflammatory viral pathogenesis and examine studies highlighting the role of the gut microbiome in viral disease outcomes. Furthermore, we discuss emerging evidence and potential future directions for microbiome modulation therapy in the context of viral pathogenesis.

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