DOI: 10.3390/v15081622 ISSN: 1999-4915

Lumpy Skin Disease: A Systematic Review of Mode of Transmission, Risk of Emergence and Risk Entry Pathway

Juana Bianchini, Xavier Simons, Marie-France Humblet, Claude Saegerman
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

The spread of lumpy skin disease (LSD) to free countries over the last 10 years, particularly countries in Europe, Central and South East Asia, has highlighted the threat of emergence in new areas or re-emergence in countries that achieved eradication. This review aimed to identify studies on LSD epidemiology. A focus was made on hosts, modes of transmission and spread, risks of outbreaks and emergence in new areas. In order to summarize the research progress regarding the epidemiological characteristics of LSD virus over the last 40 years, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines were followed, via two databases, i.e., PubMed (biomedical literature) and Scopus (peer-reviewed literature including scientific journals, books, and conference proceedings). A total of 86 scientific articles were considered and classified according to the type of epidemiological study, i.e., experimental versus observational. The main findings and limitations of the retrieved articles were summarized: buffaloes are the main non-cattle hosts, the main transmission mode is mechanical, i.e., via blood-sucking vectors, and stable flies are the most competent vectors. Vectors are mainly responsible for a short-distance spread, while cattle trade spread the virus over long distances. Furthermore, vaccine-recombinant strains have emerged. In conclusion, controlling animal trade and insects in animal transport trucks are the most appropriate measures to limit or prevent LSD (re)emergence.

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