DOI: 10.3390/ijms25042125 ISSN: 1422-0067

The Potential Use of Vitamin D3 and Phytochemicals for Their Anti-Ageing Effects

Kazuki Santa, Yoshio Kumazawa, Kenji Watanabe, Isao Nagaoka
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Unlike other vitamins, vitamin D3 is synthesised in skin cells in the body. Vitamin D3 has been known as a bone-related hormone. Recently, however, it has been considered as an immune vitamin. Vitamin D3 deficiency influences the onset of a variety of diseases. Vitamin D3 regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) through binding to vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in immune cells. Since blood levels of vitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) were low in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, there has been growing interest in the importance of vitamin D3 to maintaining a healthy condition. On the other hand, phytochemicals are compounds derived from plants with over 7000 varieties and have various biological activities. They mainly have health-promoting effects and are classified as terpenoids, carotenoids, flavonoids, etc. Flavonoids are known as the anti-inflammatory compounds that control TNF-α production. Chronic inflammation is induced by the continuous production of TNF-α and is the fundamental cause of diseases like obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, heart and brain diseases, autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. In addition, the ageing process is induced by chronic inflammation. This review explains the cooperative effects of vitamin D3 and phytochemicals in the suppression of inflammatory responses, how it balances the natural immune response, and its link to anti-ageing effects. In addition, vitamin D3 and phytochemicals synergistically contribute to anti-ageing by working with ageing-related genes. Furthermore, prevention of ageing processes induced by the chronic inflammation requires the maintenance of healthy gut microbiota, which is related to daily dietary habits. In this regard, supplementation of vitamin D3 and phytochemicals plays an important role. Recently, the association of the prevention of the non-disease condition called “ME-BYO” with the maintenance of a healthy condition has been an attractive regimen, and the anti-ageing effect discussed here is important for a healthy and long life.

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