Supersulfide catalysis for nitric oxide and aldehyde metabolismShingo Kasamatsu, Akira Nishimura, Md. Morshedul Alam, Masanobu Morita, Kakeru Shimoda, Tetsuro Matsunaga, Minkyung Jung, Seiryo Ogata, Uladzimir Barayeu, Tomoaki Ida, Motohiro Nishida, Akiyuki Nishimura, Hozumi Motohashi, Takaaki Akaike
Abundant formation of endogenous supersulfides, which include reactive persulfide species and sulfur catenated residues in thiols and proteins (supersulfidation), has been observed. We found here that supersulfides catalyze S -nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) metabolism via glutathione-dependent electron transfer from aldehydes by exploiting alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5). ADH5 is a highly conserved bifunctional enzyme serving as GSNO reductase (GSNOR) that down-regulates NO signaling and formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) that detoxifies formaldehyde in the form of glutathione hemithioacetal. C174S mutation significantly reduced the supersulfidation of ADH5 and almost abolished GSNOR activity but spared FDH activity. Notably, Adh5 C174S/C174S mice manifested improved cardiac functions possibly because of GSNOR elimination and consequent increased NO bioavailability. Therefore, we successfully separated dual functions (GSNOR and FDH) of ADH5 (mediated by the supersulfide catalysis) through the biochemical analysis for supersulfides in vitro and characterizing in vivo phenotypes of the GSNOR-deficient organisms that we established herein. Supersulfides in ADH5 thus constitute a substantial catalytic center for GSNO metabolism mediating electron transfer from aldehydes.