DOI: 10.1111/jpn.13876 ISSN:

Stimulatory effect of dietary alpha‐lipoic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, liver enzymes, immunity and protection of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (B.), Edwardsiella tarda infection

Ibrahim Adeshina, Bilal Ahamad Paray, Eijaz Ahmed Bhat, Aishat D. Ibrahim, Lateef O. Tiamiyu
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Food Animals


Edwardsiella tarda is one of the most common causes of fish diseases that hinder aquaculture. Oxidative stress in farm animals can induce a number of pathological disorders, production and general animal welfare. The use of exogenous dietary nonenzymatic antioxidants such as alpha‐lipoic acid (ALA) can stop a pro‐oxidant state and thus appears to have the potential to modulate the immune system and protect fish from bacterial infection. Thus, this study investigates the stimulatory effect of dietary ALA on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, liver enzymes, immunity and protection of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (B.), against an infection with E. tarda. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (400 g/kg of crude protein) containing ALA at doses of 0.0 (control), 500, 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg/kg diet were served to 300 juveniles of African catfish (mean weight = 8.2 ± 0.2 g) adequately thrice per day for 12 weeks. Thereafter, 0.1 mL of E. tarda (ATCC 15947; 1.0 × 108 CFU/mL) was intraperitoneally injected into 10 fish from each tank and was monitored for 14 days. The results showed that ALA‐fortified diets significantly boosted the fish growth, feed consumption and utilization and feed conversion ratio but no did not affect fish survival rate. The highest final fish weight (g), weight growth (g) and weight gain (%) were all considerably higher in fish fed with ALA‐fortified diets (p < 0.05), especially from 1000 to 200 mg/kg ALA than the control group. Also, an enhanced hemato‐biochemical, antioxidant and immune indices were noticed in African catfish‐fed ALA‐enriched diets. In a dose‐dependent order, the levels of haematological indices such Ht, Hb, RBCs, WBCs and platelets were markedly increased (p < 0.05). Additionally, fish fed with ALA‐based diets showed substantial (p < 0.05) declines in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase values, with the lowest values being found in the 2000 mg/kg diet while control group had highest values. Further, African catfish fed the feed fortified with 2000 mg ALA/kg diet showed the highest levels of lysozyme, respiratory burst, proteases and esterase activities (p < 0.05). Following exposure of fish to E. tarda infection, a significant reduction in the mortality was obtained in African catfish fed with ALA‐based diets, especially from 1500 to 2000 mg ALA/kg diet (3.3%); while fish fed with the control diet had highest mortality (86.7%). Therefore, diets supplemented with ALA evoked fish growth performance, antioxidants and nonspecific immunity of African catfish. Also, resistance of African catfish to E. Tarda infection were raised when fed ALA‐fortified diets at optimum inclusion rate of 1300 mg ALA/kg diet.

More from our Archive