DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines11092403 ISSN:

Small Heterodimer Partner Modulates Macrophage Differentiation during Innate Immune Response through the Regulation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, and Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathways

Forkan Ahamed, Natalie Eppler, Elizabeth Jones, Lily He, Yuxia Zhang
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Hepatic macrophages act as the liver’s first line of defense against injury. Their differentiation into proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory subpopulations is a critical event that maintains a delicate balance between liver injury and repair. In our investigation, we explored the influence of the small heterodimer partner (SHP), a nuclear receptor primarily associated with metabolism, on macrophage differentiation during the innate immune response. During macrophage differentiation, we observed significant alterations in Shp mRNA expression. Deletion of Shp promoted M1 differentiation while interfering with M2 polarization. Conversely, overexpression of SHP resulted in increased expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (Pparg), a master regulator of anti-inflammatory macrophage differentiation, thereby inhibiting M1 differentiation. Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, there was a notable increase in the proinflammatory M1-like macrophages, accompanied by exacerbated infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) into the livers of Shp myeloid cell specific knockout (Shp-MKO). Concurrently, we observed significant induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2) expression in LPS-treated Shp-MKO livers. Additionally, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways were activated in LPS-treated Shp-MKO livers. Consistently, both pathways were hindered in SHP overexpression macrophages. Finally, we demonstrated that SHP interacts with p65, thereby influencing macrophage immune repones. In summary, our study uncovered a previously unrecognized role of SHP in promoting anti-inflammatory macrophage differentiation during the innate immune response. This was achieved by SHP acting as a regulator for the Pparg, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways.

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