DOI: 10.1029/2023jd038788 ISSN: 2169-897X

Seasonal Dependence of Recovery From Surface Cooling Induced by Strong Tropical Volcanic Eruptions

Sho Kitabayashi, Hiroshi G. Takahashi
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Geophysics


This study investigates the response of surface air temperature (SAT) to strong tropical volcanic eruptions (STVEs), focusing on the seasonal anchoring of SAT recovery, using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and CMIP6 climate model outputs. The decrease in SAT was more significant in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. After the STVEs, shortwave radiation at the surface (SW) decreased rapidly and reached a minimum in approximately 6 months, whereas the decrease in SAT lasted for approximately 1 year; thus, the SAT minima lagged behind those of SW. The recovery of SAT from the major minimum SAT after the STVEs occurred in the same seasons, the second boreal autumn and winter. The SAT recovery occurred during the climatologically low solar radiation season after the STVEs. During this season, the decreasing effects of the downward SW (DSRS) by volcanic aerosols could become negligible. The weakening of the decrease in SAT and DSRS had a seasonal cycle in the high‐latitude regions of both hemispheres, which could be a significant factor in the seasonal alignment of returning SATs. Furthermore, the SAT response to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was examined using composite analysis based on the initial state of ENSO. The influence of ENSO on surface cooling after the STVE was at least 1/5 that of the STVEs and might exceed that of the STVEs, particularly in moderate STVEs. These results were commonly found in the CMIP5 and CMIP6 climate models.

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