Screening and Management of Coronary Artery Disease in Kidney Transplant CandidatesGiuseppe Vadalà, Chiara Alaimo, Giancarlo Buccheri, Luca Di Fazio, Leandro Di Caccamo, Vincenzo Sucato, Manlio Cipriani, Alfredo Ruggero Galassi
- Clinical Biochemistry
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and during the first year after transplantation. For these reasons, and due to the shortage of organs available for transplant, it is of utmost importance to identify patients with a good life expectancy after transplant and minimize the transplant peri-operative risk. Various conditions, such as severe pulmonary diseases, recent myocardial infarction or stroke, and severe aorto-iliac atherosclerosis, need to be ruled out before adding a patient to the transplant waiting list. The effectiveness of systematic coronary artery disease (CAD) treatment before kidney transplant is still debated, and there is no universal screening protocol, not to mention that a nontailored screening could lead to unnecessary invasive procedures and delay or exclude some patients from transplantation. Despite the different clinical guidelines on CAD screening in kidney transplant candidates that exist, up to today, there is no worldwide universal protocol. This review summarizes the key points of cardiovascular risk assessment in renal transplant candidates and faces the role of noninvasive cardiovascular imaging tools and the impact of coronary revascularization versus best medical therapy before kidney transplant on a patient’s cardiovascular outcome.