Satellite-Based Identification and Characterization of Extreme Ice Features: Hummocks and Ice IslandsIgor Zakharov, Pradeep Bobby, Desmond Power, Sherry Warren, Mark Howell
- General Earth and Planetary Sciences
The satellite-based techniques for the monitoring of extreme ice features (EIFs) in the Canadian Arctic were investigated and demonstrated using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and electro-optical data sources. The main EIF types include large ice islands and ice-island fragments, multiyear hummock fields (MYHF) and other EIFs, such as fragments of MYHF and large, newly formed hummock fields. The main objectives for the paper included demonstration of various satellite capabilities over specific regions in the Canadian Arctic to assess their utility to detect and characterize EIFs. Stereo pairs of very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery provided detailed measurements of sea ice topography and were used as validation information for evaluation of the applied techniques. Single-pass interferometric SAR (InSAR) data were used to extract ice topography including hummocks and ice islands. Shape from shading and height from shadow techniques enable us to extract ice topography relying on a single image. A new method for identification of EIFs in sea ice based on the thermal infrared band of Landsat 8 was introduced. The performance of the methods for ice feature height estimation was evaluated by comparing with a stereo or InSAR digital elevation models (DEMs). Full polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data were demonstrated to be useful for identification of ice islands.