DOI: 10.1002/jmd2.12395 ISSN:

S‐adenosylmethionine and nicotinamide riboside therapy in Arts syndrome: A case report and literature review

Angela Lee, Renatta Knox, Margaret Reynolds, Erin McRoy, Hoanh Nguyen
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine


Phospho‐ribosyl‐pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1) deficiency is secondary to loss of function variants in PRPS1. This enzyme generates phospho‐ribosyl‐pyrophosphate (PRPP), which is utilized in the synthesis of purines, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and NAD phosphate (NADP), among other metabolic pathways. Arts syndrome, or severe PRPS1 deficiency, is an X‐linked condition characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, optic atrophy, developmental delays, ataxia, hypotonia, and recurrent infections that can cause progressive clinical decline, often resulting in death before 5 years of age. Supplementation of the purine and NAD pathways outside of PRPP‐dependent reactions is a logical approach and has been reported in a handful of patients, two with S‐adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and one with SAMe and nicotinamide riboside (NR). We present the clinical course of a fourth Arts syndrome patient who was started on therapy and review previously reported patients. All patients had stability or improvement of symptoms, suggesting that SAMe and NR can be a treatment option in Arts syndrome, though further studies are warranted.

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